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What are some resources that facilitators use?


Facilitators use a variety of tools in preparing for IEP and other meetings and facilitating the meeting. These tools can be helpful to all stakeholders when preparing for and participating in meetings. CDE and PEAK Parent Center provide additional training and resources on the tools described below. If you would like to receive copies of any of these tools, please email


FAPE in the LRE: The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act provides for eligible students with disabilities to receive a free appropriate public education (FAPE) provided in the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE). This graphic depicts how special education supports the general curriculum and related services wrap around and support special education. 

A diagram with three concentric circles




Parent Input Form: A fillable PDF in English and Spanish that school teams may use to obtain parent input on strengths, observations and areas of concern. If the school team does not provide a form, parents could fill it out on their own to use it, think through or provide parent input. (Spanish version available.)

     A form called Parent Input to IEP


FAPE Continuum: A visual of the main sections of the IEP. Facilitators may use this visual for charting during the meeting. Parents can use this as a reminder of the sections of the IEP that will be covered in an IEP meeting.

An arrow pointing right with sections for parts of the IEP process


Comprehensive Evaluation Wheel: A visual of the types of evaluations to consider so that the evaluation is comprehensive in determining the needs of the student. This tool is intended to be used for discussion to make sure that all areas related to the suspected disability or disabilities are covered, including areas that may not be commonly linked to the disability category. This tool is for discussion purposes and not a suggestion that all areas be assessed.

 A circle listing areas of evaluation to consider


Question Bank: Strategic questions are a great way to improve communication in meetings. They can help to build clarity and understanding among the team members about what is needed for the child. The Question Bank provides a list of questions that can help to bring out more information and increase understanding.


Active Listening Skills: Paraphrasing, Mirroring and Reframing are tools to use to make sure that you are listening for the purpose of understanding and to show the speaker that you want to understand what they are saying. This handout briefly describes each of these active listening skills.


Conflict Wheel: Though not used in meetings, the conflict wheel provides a tool for thinking about potential sources of conflict for participants and the team. There are many variations of conflict wheels, and this is the one used by this project. Needs are at the center of the conflict wheel, recognizing that unmet needs or conflicting needs are at the center of conflict. This tool is helpful in preparing for or reflecting on meetings when the team has not been able to come to consensus.

A circle with sections representing sources of conflict


Consensus Scale: In IEP meetings, the team is working toward consensus. This visual can help to understand where people are with respect to a proposal that is being considered.

A table showing levels of consensus